Myopia Control Overview and Introduction

Kate L. Gifford, BAppSc (Optom), PhD, IMI Committee Chair

Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Committee members:

  • Prof. Ian Flitcroft
  • Dr. Kate Gifford
  • Dr. Monica Jong
  • Prof. Lyndon Jones
  • Prof. Caroline Klaver
  • Dr. Nicola Logan
  • Prof. Kovin Naidoo
  • Prof. Serge Resnikoff
  • Prof. Padmaja Sankaridurg
  • Prof. Earl Smith
  • Prof. David Troilo
  • Prof. Christine Wildsoet

The future research directions of myopia interventions and treatments are discussed, along with the provision of clinical references, resources, and recommendations for continuing professional education in this growing area of clinical practice.

With the growing prevalence of myopia, already at epidemic levels in some countries, there is an urgent need for new management approaches.However, with the increasing number of research publications on the topic of myopia control, there is also a clear necessity for agreement and guidance on key issues, including on how myopia should be defined and how interventions, validated by well-conducted clinical trials, should be appropriately and ethically applied. The International Myopia Institute (IMI) reports the critical review and synthesis of the research evidence to date, from animal models, genetics, clinical studies, and randomized controlled trials, by more than 85 multidisciplinary experts in the field, as the basis for the recommendations contained therein.As background to the need for myopia control, the risk factors for myopia onset and progression are reviewed.The seven generated reports are summarized:

  1. Defining and Classifying Myopia
  2. Experimental Models of Emmetropization and Myopia
  3. Myopia Genetics
  4. Interventions for Myopia Onset and Progression
  5. Clinical Myopia Control Trials and Instrumentation
  6. Industry Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Myopia Control
  7. Clinical Myopia Management Guidelines

Keywords: myopia control, myopic progression, clinical guidelines, definition, interventions

Translated versions of IMI clinical summaries are available at

The publication costs of the International Myopia Institute reports were supported by donations from BHVI, Carl Zeiss Vision, CooperVision, Essilor, Alcon, and Vision Impact Institute.

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